Region 1 - Ilocos Region

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Sur

La Union

Pangasinan

History

The region was first inhabited by the aboriginal Negritos, before they were pushed by successive waves of Austronesian immigrants that penetrated the narrow coast. Tingguians in the interior, Ilocanos in the north, Pangasinans in the south, and Zambals in the southwesternmost areas settled the region. Before the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, Pangasinan was not a part of the region.

The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and established Christian missions and governmental institutions to control the native population and convert them to Catholicism. Present-day Vigan in Ilocos Sur province became the diocesan seat of Nueva Segovia. Ilocanos in the northern parts were less easily swayed, however, and remained an area filled with deep resentments against Spain. These resentments surfaced at various points in the Ilocos provinces’ history as insurrections, most notably that of Andres Malong and Palaris of Pangasinan, Diego Silang and his wife Gabriela Silang in 1764, and the Basi Revolt in the 19th century. However, it was the Pangasinans in the south who were the last to stand against the Spaniards.

In 1901, the region came under American colonial rule, and in 1941, under Japanese occupation.

During 1945, the combined American and the Philippine Commonwealth troops including with the Ilocano and Pangasinan guerillas liberated the Ilocos Region from Japanese forces during the Second World War.

Several modern presidents of the Republic of the Philippines hailed from the Region: Elpidio Quirino, Ferdinand Marcos, and Fidel V. Ramos. The province of Pangasinan was transferred by Ferdinand Marcos from Region III into Region I in 1973 and afterwards imposed a migration policy for Ilokanos into Pangasinan, to the moderate detriment of the native Pangasinenses. He also included Abra, Mountain Province, and Benguet in the Ilocos region in a bid to expand Ilokano influence amongst the ethnic peoples of the Cordilleras.

When the Cordillera Administrative Region was established under Corazon Aquino, the indigenous provinces of Abra, Mountain Province, and Benguet were transferred into the newly formed region.

Administrative Divisions

The Ilocos Region comprises 4 provinces, 1 independent component city, 8 component cities, 116 municipalities, and 3,265 barangays.

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Population

2020 Estimate

Ilocos Norte
11.7%
Ilocos Sur
13.7%
La Union
16.5%
Pangasinan
59.6%
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Pangasinan

Economy

Although the economy in the southern portion of the region, especially Pangasinan, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry, the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos).

Although the economy in the southern portion of the region, especially Pangasinan, is anchored on agro-industrial and service industry, the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish paste processing (bagoong), and others. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and carabaos (water buffalos).

The distribution of the economic activity in the region may be seen from the collection of tax revenue of the national government. The bulk of the collections come from Pangasinan, which posted 61% of the total.

The service and light manufacturing industries are concentrated in the cities. Dagupan is mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs, which have started to expand its network up to the national level. San Fernando in La Union also has an international shipping port and the upgraded and soon to be developed San Fernando International Airport. While Laoag in Ilocos Norte has an international airport.

The tourism industry, driven by local airlines and land transportation firms in the area like Farinas Transit Company and Partas, focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-tourism. There are fine sands stretching along Bauang, La Union and the rest of the region.

The region is also rich in crafts, with renowned blanket-weaving and pottery. The Ilocanos’ burnay pottery is well known for its dark colored clay.

Provinces

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Norte (Ilocano: Amianan nga Ilocos; Probinsia ti Ilocos Norte) is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region. Its capital is Laoag City, located in the northwest corner of Luzón Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra to the southeast, and Ilocos Sur to the southwest. Ilocos Norte faces the West Philippine Sea to the west and the Luzon Strait to the north.

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Ilocos Sur

Ilocos Sur (Ilocano: Makin-abagatan nga Ilocos) is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is the city of Vigan, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte and Abra to the north, Mountain Province to the east, La Union and Benguet to the south and the South China Sea to the west.

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La Union

La Union (Tagalog pronunciation: [la ˈuɲon]), officially the Province of La Union (Ilocano: Probinsia ti La Union; Kakanaey: Probinsyan di La Union; Pangasinan: Luyag na La Union; Ibaloi: Probinsya ne La Union; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng La Union), is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in the Island of Luzon. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, which also serves as the regional center of the Ilocos Region.

 

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Pangasinan

Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan (Pangasinan: Luyag na Pangasinan, [paŋɡasiˈnan]; Ilocano: Probinsia ti Pangasinan; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region of Luzon. Its capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is on the western area of the island of Luzon along Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi).

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